Kirstin C. Appelt
Behavioral Science Research Consultant

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POSITIONS HELD
Adjunct ProfessorJanuary 2015 - present
Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia

Behavioral Science Research Consultant, clients include:January 2012 - present
California Health Benefit Exchange
Center Decision Sciences (CDS), Columbia Business School
Google, People Analytics
Pacific Business Group on Health

Post-doctoral Research Scientist2009 - 2011
Center Decision Sciences (CDS), Columbia Business School
Center for Research on Environmental Decisions (CRED), Columbia University

EDUCATION
Columbia UniversityPh.D.Psychology2009
Columbia UniversityM.Phil.Psychology2008
Columbia UniversityM.A.Psychology2007
Dartmouth CollegeB.A., magna cum laudeEconomics2003

PEER-REVIEWED PUBLICATIONS
Knoll, M. A. Z., Appelt, K. C., Johnson, E. J., & Westfall, J. E. (2015). Time to retire: Why Americans claim benefits early and how to encourage delay. Behavioral Science and Policy, 1(1), 53-62. [Journal Article]

Handgraaf, M. J. J., van Lidth de Jeude, M. A., & Appelt, K. C. (2013). Public praise vs. private pay: Effects of rewards on energy conservation in the workplace. Ecological Economics, 86, 86-92. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.11.008 [Journal Article]

Hardisty, D. J., Appelt, K. C., & Weber, E. U. (2013). Good or bad, we want it now: Fixed-cost present bias for gains and losses explains magnitude asymmetries in intertemporal choice. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 26(4), 348-361. doi: 10.1002/bdm.1771 [Journal Article]

Payne, J. W., Sagara, N., Shu, S. B., Appelt, K. C., & Johnson, E. J. (2013). Life expectancy as a constructed belief: Evidence of a live-to or die-by framing effect. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 46(1), 27-50. doi: 10.1007/s11166-012-9158-0 [Journal Article]

Shalvi, S., Reijseger, G., Handgraaf, M. J. J., Appelt, K. C., ten Velden, F. S., Giacomantonio, M. (2013). Pay to walk away: Prevention buyers prefer to avoid negotiation. Journal of Economic Psychology, 38, 40-49. doi: 10.1016/j.joep.2012.03.002 [Journal Article]

Handgraaf, M. J. J., Milch, K. F., Appelt, K. C., Schuette, P., Yoskowitz, N. A., & Weber, E. U. (2012). Web-conferencing as a viable method for group decision research. Judgment and Decision Making, 7(5), 659-668. [Open Access Journal Article]

Appelt, K. C., Hardisty, D. J., & Weber, E. U. (2011). Asymmetric discounting of gains and losses: A Query Theory account. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 43(2), 107-126. doi: 10.1007/s11166-011-9125-1 [Pre-print] [Journal Article]

Appelt, K. C., Milch, K. F., Handgraaf, M. J. J., & Weber, E. U. (2011). The Decision Making Individual Differences Inventory and guidelines for the study of individual differences in judgment and decision making. Judgment and Decision Making, 6(3), 252-262. [Open Access Journal Article]

Appelt, K. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2010). My way: How strategic preferences vary by negotiator role and regulatory focus. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(6), 1138-1142. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2010.05.010 [Pre-print] [Journal Article]

Appelt, K. C., Zou, X., & Higgins, E. T. (2010). Feeling right or being right: When strong assessment yields strong correction. Motivation and Emotion, 34(3), 316-324. doi: 10.1007/s11031-010-9171-z [Pre-print] [Journal Article]

Appelt, K. C., Zou, X., Arora, P., & Higgins, E. T. (2009). Regulatory fit in negotiation: Effects of "prevention-buyer" and "promotion-seller" fit. Social Cognition, 27(3), 365-384. doi: 10.1521/soco.2009.27.3.365 [Pre-print] [Journal Article]

Milch, K. F., Weber, E. U., Appelt, K. C., Handgraaf, M. J. J., & Krantz, D. H. (2009). From individual preference construction to group decisions: Framing effects and group processes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 108(2), 242-255. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2008.11.003 [Pre-print] [Journal Article]

WORKING PAPERS
Appelt, K. C. (2009). When the role fits: Increasing demand in negotiation (Full doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY. [Dissertation]

Appelt, K. C., Gao, J., Johnson, E. J., & von Glahn, T. (2017). Choosing how to choose: Can people choose the best choice architecture?. Manuscript in preparation.

Appelt, K. C., Knoll, M. A. Z., Johnson, E. J., & Westfall, E. J. (2017). Checklists as choice architecture. Manuscript in preparation.

Treuer, G. A., Weber, E. U., Appelt, K. C., Goll, A. E., Filbin, R. W., & Crookes, R. D. (2017). Weathering the storm: Opposition to public policy is predictable and transient. Manuscript submitted for publication.

PROFESSIONAL CONTRIBUTIONS
Decision Making Individual Differences Inventory (DMIDI)
A free resource for researchers, the DMIDI categorizes and describes individual difference measures commonly used in judgment & decision research. Over 125,000 unique site visits in 18 months, before being acquired by the Society for Judgment and Decision Making; currently averages 25,000 page views per week. In collaboration with Kerry Milch, Michel Handgraaf, & Elke Weber. [The DMIDI]

Center for Research on Environmental Decisions. (2009). The psychology of climate change communication: A guide for scientists, journalists, educators, political aides, and the interested public. New York, NY.
The guide applies ideas from psychology in general and CRED research in specific to the communication of climate change information. Over 30,000 unique site visits since launch. Contributed research and writing to various sections. [The CRED Guide]

GRANTS & AWARDS
Grants:
TIAA-CREF Institute grant “Customized choice architecture: Helping without nudging,” co-written with Eric Johnson

2014 - 2015

Supplement to National Institute of Aging grant 5R01AG027934-04 funded by Social Security Administration, “The psychology and behavioral economics of benefit collection,” co-written with Eric Johnson and Elke Weber

2010 - 2012

Alfred P. Sloan & Russell Sage Foundations’ joint program on consumer finance grant “Accounting for tastes and skill: The impact of individual differences on annuity and post-mortgage decision making,” written by Eric Johnson with significant contributions

2010 - 2011

National Science Foundation grant “Environmental decision Making by individuals and groups,” co-written with Elke Weber, Michel Handgraaf, and Kerry Milch2007 - 2010

Awards:

Dissertation Award Honorable Mention, International Association for Conflict Management

2011

Travel Award, National Science Foundation-sponsored Advanced Training Institute on Advanced Techniques for Web Research

2009

Student Travel Award, 3rd annual Judgment & Decision Making pre-conference at the annual meeting of the Society for Personality & Social Psychology

2008

Richard Christie Memorial Fellowship, Columbia University

2007 - 2008

Research Travel Award, Columbia University Psychology Department

2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008

Faculty Fellowship, Columbia University

2004 - 2009

Phi Beta Kappa, Dartmouth College

2003

TEACHING EXPERIENCE
Marketing and Behavioural Science Department, Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia:
Introduction to Marketing (BCom)InstructorSpring 2015 - present
Market Research (BCom)InstructorSpring 2017
Community Business Project (MM)InstructorSpring 2016 - present
Marketing (MM)InstructorFall 2016 - present

Marketing and Management Departments, Columbia Business School:
The Psychology and Economics of Consumer Finance (MBA)TAFall 2010
Managerial Negotiations (MBA)TASpring 2008 & 2009

Psychology Department, Columbia University:
Thinking and Decision Making (BA)InstructorSummer 2010
Experimental Methods: Thinking and Decision Making (BA)TA & Lab InstructorFall 2006 & 2007
The Science of Psychology (BA)TAFall 2004, 2005, & 2008

PRESENTATIONS
Invited Talks:
Appelt, K. C., Gao, J., Johnson, E. J.*, & von Glahn, T. (2014, April). E-ZPath: Can consumers choose how to choose? The 2nd annual Health Insurance Exchanges Conference at University of Pennsylvania’s Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, Philadelphia, PA. *Presenter.

Appelt, K. C. (2013, April; moderator). Choice architecture and exchanges. Moderated session at the 1st annual Health Insurance Exchanges Conference at University of Pennsylvania’s Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, Philadelphia, PA.

Appelt, K. C. (2012, December). The latest evidence on how to help consumers choose health plans. Pacific Business Group on Health (PBGH) Board of Directors Meeting, Oakland, CA.

von Glahn, T.*, & Appelt, K. C.* (2012, December). Enabling and empowering consumer decision making: Health plan choice. America’s Health Insurance Plans (AHIP) Exchange Conference, Chicago, IL. *Presenters.

Hardisty, D. J. *, Appelt, K. C.*, & Weber, E. U. (2009, December). I want it now! And I want to get it over with now!: Impatience explains discounting anomalies for gains and losses. Department of Psychology Cognitive Lunch, Columbia University, New York, NY. *Presenters. [Abstract]

Higgins, E. T., & Appelt, K. C. (2009, May). When negotiator role fit creates demanding behavior. Program on Negotiation at Harvard University, Boston, MA.

Appelt, K. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2008, May). When the role fits: Regulatory fit in negotiations. Department of Work and Organizational Psychology Research Lunch, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands. [Abstract]

Appelt, K. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2008, March). Regulatory fit in negotiations: When regulatory focus and role match. New Directions in Motivation Science Conference, Columbia University, New York, NY.

Appelt, K. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2007, February). Regulatory fit in negotiation: Regulatory focus and negotiator role. Social and Personality Psychology Four-College Conference, Columbia University, New York, NY.

Appelt, K. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2007, January). Regulatory focus, role, and regulatory fit in negotiation. Regulatory Focus and Group Processes Conference, Columbia University, New York, NY.


Chaired & Moderated Symposia:
Appelt, K. C. (2017, February). Customized nudges: Choice architecture for a heterogeneous world. Special session organized at the Society for Consumer Psychology Winter Conference, San Francisco, CA.

Appelt, K. C. (2016, October). Customized nudges: Choice architecture for a heterogeneous world. Special session organized at the Association for Consumer Research Annual North American Conference, Berlin, Germany.

Appelt, K. C. (2013, April). Choice architecture and exchanges. Session moderated at the 1st annual Health Insurance Exchanges Conference at University of Pennsylvania’s Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, Philadelphia, PA.

Appelt, K. C. (2011, October). Adding and subtracting: Decision making during accumulation and decumulation of retirement savings. Special session organized at the Association for Consumer Research Annual North American Conference, St. Louis, MO.


Conference Presentations:
Appelt, K. C., Johnson, E. J., Knoll, M. A. Z., & Westfall, J. E. (2017, February). Effective, selective choice architecture: Checklists as a more precise tool. Paper presented in K. C. Appelt (Chair), Customized nudges: Choice architecture for a heterogeneous world. Special session conducted at the Society for Consumer Psychology Winter Conference, San Francisco, CA.

Appelt, K. C., Johnson, E. J., Knoll, M. A. Z.*, & Westfall, J. E. (2016, November). Preference checklists: Effective and selective choice architecture for retirement decisions. Paper presented at the 37th annual meeting of the Society for Judgment and Decision Making, Boston, MA. *Presenter.

Appelt, K. C., Johnson, E. J., Knoll, M. A. Z., & Westfall, J. E. (2016, October). Effective, selective choice architecture: Checklists as a more precise tool. Paper presented in K. C. Appelt (Chair), Customized nudges: Choice architecture for a heterogeneous world. Special session conducted at the Association for Consumer Research Annual North American Conference, Berlin, Germany.

Appelt, K. C., Johnson, E. J.*, Knoll, M. A. Z., & Westfall, J. E. (2016, June). Checklists as selective choice architecture. Paper presented at the 15th biennial Behavioral Decision Research in Management Conference, Toronto, ON. *Presenter.

Appelt, K. C., Johnson, E. J., Knoll, M. A. Z.*, & Westfall, J. E. (2016, May). Checklists as selective choice architecture. Paper presented at the 7th annual Boulder Summer Conference on Consumer Financial Decision Making, Boulder, CO. *Presenter.

Castelo, N., Reeck, C., Jachimowicz, J., Appelt, K.C., Weber, E. U., & Johnson, E. J., (2015, May). Do the effects of defaults and their disclosure depend on pre-existing preferences? Paper presented at the 27th APS Annual Convention, New York, NY.

Appelt, K. C., Gao, J., Johnson, E. J., & von Glahn, T. (2014, October). Choosing how to choose: Can people choose the best choice architecture? Paper presented at the Association for Consumer Research Annual North American Conference, Baltimore, MD.[Abstract]

Hardisty, D. J., Appelt, K. C., & Weber, E. U. (2012, October). Good or bad, we want it now: Resolution theory explains magnitude reversal in intertemporal choice. Paper presented at the Association for Consumer Research Annual North American Conference, Vancouver, BC. [Abstract]

Appelt, K. C., Hardisty, D. J.*, & Weber, E. U. (2012, June). Asymmetric discounting of gains and losses: A Query Theory account. Paper presented at the 13th biennial Behavioral Decision Research in Management Conference, Boulder, CO. *Presenter.

Appelt, K. C., Johnson, E. J., Knoll, M. A. Z.*, & Westfall, J. E. (2012, June). Time to retire: Why Americans claim benefits early and how to encourage delay. Paper presented at the 13th biennial Behavioral Decision Research in Management Conference, Boulder, CO. *Presenter.

Li, Y., Johnson, E. J., & Appelt, K. C. (2012, June). Overcoming the annuity paradox. Paper presented at the 13th biennial Behavioral Decision Research in Management Conference, Boulder, CO.

Appelt, K. C., Hardisty, D. J.*, & Weber, E. U. (2011, October). I want it now! Query Theory explains discounting anomalies for gains and losses. Paper presented at the Association for Consumer Research Annual North American Conference, St. Louis, MO. *Presenter. [Abstract]

Appelt, K. C., Johnson, E. J.*, Knoll, M. A. Z., & Westfall, J. E. (2011, October). Time to retire: Why Americans claim benefits early and how to encourage them to delay. Paper presented in K. C. Appelt (Chair), Adding and subtracting: Decision making during accumulation and decumulation of retirement savings. Special session conducted at the Association for Consumer Research Annual North American Conference, St. Louis, MO. *Presenter.

Sagara, N., Payne, J. W., Shu, S. B., Appelt, K. C., & Johnson, E. J. (2011, October). Live to or die by: Framing effects on life expectations and life annuity choice. Paper presented in K. C. Appelt (Chair), Adding and subtracting: Decision making during accumulation and decumulation of retirement savings. Special session conducted at the Association for Consumer Research Annual North American Conference, St. Louis, MO. [Abstract]

Handgraaf, M. J. J., van Lidth de Jeude, M., & Appelt, K. C. (2011, September). Private payment versus public praise: Effects of reward type on energy conservation. Paper presented at Environment 2.0, the 9th biennial conference on Environmental Psychology, Eindhoven, Netherlands.

Appelt, K. C., Johnson, E. J.*, Knoll, M. A. Z., & Westfall, J. E. (2011, June). Time to retire: Why Americans claim benefits early and how to encourage them to delay. Paper presented at the 2nd annual Boulder Summer Conference on Consumer Financial Decision Making, Boulder, CO. *Presenter. [Abstract]

Payne, J. W., Sagara, N., Shu, S. B., Appelt, K. C., & Johnson, E. J. (2011, June). Live to or die by: Framing effects on life expectations. Paper presented at the 2nd annual Boulder Summer Conference on Consumer Financial Decision Making, Boulder, CO.

Handgraaf, M. J. J., van Lidth de Jeude, M., & Appelt, K. C. (2010, September). Private payment versus public praise: Effects of reward type on energy conservation. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Association for Research in Economic Psychology, Cologne, Germany.

Appelt, K. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2010, June). My way: Strategic preferences vary by negotiator role and regulatory focus. Paper presented at the 23rd annual meeting of the International Association for Conflict Management, Boston, MA. [Abstract]

Arora, P., Appelt, K. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2010, June). Role of status in strategic choices and outcomes in negotiations. Paper presented at the 23rd annual meeting of the International Association for Conflict Management, Boston, MA. [Abstract]

Appelt, K. C., Hardisty, D. J., & Weber, E. U. (2010, February). I want it now and I want to get it over with now: Impatience explains discounting anomalies for gains and losses. Paper presented at the 2nd annual Princeton Graduate Student Conference on Psychology and Policymaking, Princeton, NJ. [Abstract]

Hardisty, D. J.*, Appelt, K. C.*, & Weber, E. U. (2009, November). I want it now! Why discount rates for losses show reverse frame and reverse magnitude effects. Paper presented at the 30th annual meeting of the Society for Judgment and Decision Making, Boston, MA. *Presenters. [Abstract]

Zou, X., Appelt, K. C., & Higgins E. T. (2008, August). The effect of assessment orientation on decision processes. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management Conference, Anaheim, California.

Hardisty, D. J., Milch, K. F., Appelt, K. C., Handgraaf, M. J. J., Arora, P., Krantz, D. H., et al. (2007, November). Discounting of environmental goods and discounting in social contexts. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 28th Society for Judgment and Decision Making, Long Beach, CA. [Abstract]


Conference posters:
Knoll, M. A. Z., Johnson, E. J., Westfall, J. E., & Appelt, K. C. (2015, June). Checklists as choice architecture: What you don’t know (or think about) can hurt you. Poster presented at the 6th annual Boulder Summer Conference on Consumer Financial Decision Making, Boulder, CO.

Appelt, K. C., Gao, J., Johnson, E. J., & von Glahn, T. (2013, November). QuickChoice: Using defaults to help consumers choose high-value health insurance. Poster presented at the 34th annual meeting of the Society for Judgment and Decision Making, Toronto, ON. [Abstract]

Appelt, K. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2010, November). The choice is yours, but should it be? Assigning emphasis overcomes gain/loss asymmetries. Poster presented at the 31st annual meeting of the Society for Judgment and Decision Making, St. Louis, MO. [Poster]

Appelt, K. C., Hardisty, D. J., & Weber, E. U. (2010, January). I think therefore I want: A process account of discounting of losses. Poster presented at the 5th annual Judgment and Decision Making pre-conference at the annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Las Vegas, NV. [Poster]

Appelt, K. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2010, January). Fit from shared strategic preferences between negotiator role and goal focus. Poster presented at the 11h annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Las Vegas, NV. [Poster]

Appelt, K. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2009, November). Is emphasizing losses (vs. gains) better in negotiations with multiple issues? Poster presented at the 30th annual meeting of the Society for Judgment and Decision Making, Boston, MA. [Poster]

Smith, J. A., Weber, E. U., Appelt, K. C., & Milch, K. F. (2009, November). Querying the group mind: Applying Query Theory to group discussions. Poster presented at the 30th annual meeting of the Society for Judgment and Decision Making, Boston, MA. [Poster]

Appelt, K. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2009, February). Decomposing focus-role fit in price negotiations. Poster presented at the 4th annual Judgment and Decision Making pre-conference at the annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Tampa, FL. [Poster]

Appelt, K. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2009, February). Investigating focus-role regulatory fit in negotiations emphasizing non-price issues. Poster presented at the 10th annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Tampa, FL. [Poster]

Appelt, K. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2008, November). When the role fits: Regulatory fit in negotiations. Poster presented at the 29th annual meeting of the Society for Judgment and Decision Making, Chicago, IL. [Poster]

Appelt, K. C., & Weber, E. U. (2008, November). Now or later? Query theory explains asymmetric discounting for both gains and losses. Poster presented at the 29th annual meeting of the Society for Judgment and Decision Making, Chicago, IL. [Poster]

Schuette, P., Handgraaf, M. J. J., Milch, K. F., Appelt, K. C., & Weber, E. U. (2008, November). A new avenue for group decision research: Comparing technology-mediated and face-to-face group decisions. Poster presented at the 29th annual meeting of the Society for Judgment and Decision Making, Chicago, IL. [Poster]

Appelt, K. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2008, February). In a real negotiation emphasizing price, selling fits promotion and buying fits prevention. Poster presented at the 3rd annual Judgment and Decision Making pre-conference at the annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Albuquerque, NM. [Poster]

Appelt, K. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2007, November). When a negotiation is about price, selling fits promotion and buying fits prevention. Poster presented at the 28th annual meeting of the Society for Judgment and Decision Making, Long Beach, CA. [Poster]

Zou, X., Appelt, K. C.*, & Higgins, E. T. (2007, November). Process or outcome: The effect of assessment orientation on decision making. Poster presented at the 28th annual meeting of the Society for Judgment and Decision Making, Long Beach, CA. *Presenter. [Poster]

Appelt, K. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2007, January). Regulatory focus and strategic concerns in negotiation preparation. Poster presented at the 8th annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Memphis, TN. [Poster]

Bohns, V. K., Appelt, K. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2007, January). Opposites fit: Evidence for a complementarity effect of regulatory focus in dyadic interactions. Poster presented at the 8th annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Memphis, TN. [Poster]

Appelt, K. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2006, November). Demanding negotiators: The effects of reference price emphasis, regulatory focus, and regulatory fit. Poster presented at the 27th annual meeting of the Society for Judgment and Decision Making, Houston, TX. [Poster]


PROFESSIONAL SERVICE: Ad Hoc Reviewing
Journals:
Cognition
Global Environmental Change
Journal of Behavioral Decision Making
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Judgment and Decision Making
Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
Social Psychological & Personality Science
Social Security Bulletin

Grant Proposals & Research Awards:
National Science Foundation (NSF) – Decision, Risk and Management Sciences
Association for Psychological Science Student Caucus (APSSC) – Student Grant Competition
Association for Psychological Science Student Caucus (APSSC) – Student Research Award Competition
Society for Judgment and Decision Making - Student Poster Award



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2017